尼各马可伦理学
Nicomachean Ethics

  • 作   者:

    亚里士多德
    Aristotle

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    英文

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥7.90

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走近西方第一部伦理学专著,探究德性与理性,至善与幸福。

《尼各马可伦理学》是古希腊哲学家亚里士多德的哲学著作,是西方伦理学史上第一部伦理学专著,书中系统阐述了德性在于合乎理性的活动,至善就是幸福等观点,成为西方近现代伦理学思想的主要渊源之一。被认为是亚里士多德本人在吕克昂学院(Lyceum)中的讲座笔记,因其子尼各马可(Nicomachus)而命名。

Nicomachean Ethics is the name normally given to Aristotle's best known work on ethics. It plays a pre-eminent role in defining Aristotelian ethics.It consists of ten books, originally separate scrolls, and is understood to be based on notes from his lectures at the Lyceum, which were either edited by or dedicated to Aristotle's son, Nicomachus. The theme of the work is the Socratic question which had previously been explored in Plato's works, of how men should best live. It is widely considered one of the most important historical philosophical works, and had an important impact upon the European Middle Ages, becoming one of the core works of medieval philosophy.

亚里士多德(公元前384-公元前322),古希腊哲学家、科学家、教育家,柏拉图的学生、亚历山大大帝的老师。和柏拉图、苏格拉底(柏拉图的老师)一起被誉为西方哲学的奠基者。他的著作包含许多学科,是西方哲学的第一个广泛系统,包含道德、美学、逻辑和科学、政治和玄学。虽然亚里士多德写下许多经典的论文和对话录(西塞罗曾称赞亚里士多德的作品是“一系列的黄金”),大多数他的著作在今天都已经遗失,而少数保留下来的著作的真实性也经常受到质疑。亚里士多德的作品在历史上曾遭遗失而又重新寻获数次,一般认为目前保留下来的作品数量只有全部原始作品的五分之一的而已。

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in Stagirus, northern Greece, in 384 BCE. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child, whereafter Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. At eighteen, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BCE). His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics and government – and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy. Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great between 356 and 323 BCE. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "Aristotle was the first genuine scientist in history. ... Every scientist is in his debt."

Our discussion will be adequate if it has as much clearness as the subject-matter admits of, for precision is not to be sought for alike in all discussions, any more than in all the products of the crafts. Now fine and just actions, which political science investigates, admit of much variety and fluctuation of opinion, so that they may be thought to exist only by convention, and not by nature. And goods also give rise to a similar fluctuation because they bring harm to many people; for before now men have been undone by reason of their wealth, and others by reason of their courage. We must be content, then, in speaking of such subjects and with such premisses to indicate the truth roughly and in outline, and in speaking about things which are only for the most part true and with premisses of the same kind to reach conclusions that are no better. In the same spirit, therefore, should each type of statement be received; for it is the mark of an educated man to look for precision in each class of things just so far as the nature of the subject admits; it is evidently equally foolish to accept probable reasoning from a mathematician and to demand from a rhetorician scientific proofs.

Now each man judges well the things he knows, and of these he is a good judge. And so the man who has been educated in a subject is a good judge of that subject, and the man who has received an all-round education is a good judge in general. Hence a young man is not a proper hearer of lectures on political science; for he is inexperienced in the actions that occur in life, but its discussions start from these and are about these; and, further, since he tends to follow his passions, his study will be vain and unprofitable, because the end aimed at is not knowledge but action. And it makes no difference whether he is young in years or youthful in character; the defect does not depend on time, but on his living, and pursuing each successive object, as passion directs. For to such persons, as to the incontinent, knowledge brings no profit; but to those who desire and act in accordance with a rational principle knowledge about such matters will be of great benefit.

These remarks about the student, the sort of treatment to be expected, and the purpose of the inquiry, may be taken as our preface.

  • BOOK I

  • BOOK II

  • BOOK III

  • BOOK IV

  • BOOK V

  • BOOK VI

  • BOOK VII

  • BOOK VIII

  • BOOK IX

  • BOOK X

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