论动物的运动
On the Motion of Animals

  • 作   者:

    亚里士多德
    Aristotle

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    英文

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥5.90

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独特的视角来看动物的行动特征

本书主要谈论的就是动物是如何进行运动的,以及动物在行动时有什么样的特征。还有分析了这些行动方式的共性。

On the Motion of Animals is a text by Aristotle on the general principles of motion in animals

亚里士多德(公元前384-公元前322),古希腊哲学家、科学家、教育家,柏拉图的学生、亚历山大大帝的老师。和柏拉图、苏格拉底(柏拉图的老师)一起被誉为西方哲学的奠基者。他的著作包含许多学科,是西方哲学的第一个广泛系统,包含道德、美学、逻辑和科学、政治和玄学。虽然亚里士多德写下许多经典的论文和对话录(西塞罗曾称赞亚里士多德的作品是“一系列的黄金”),大多数他的著作在今天都已经遗失,而少数保留下来的著作的真实性也经常受到质疑。亚里士多德的作品在历史上曾遭遗失而又重新寻获数次,一般认为目前保留下来的作品数量只有全部原始作品的五分之一的而已。

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in Stagirus, northern Greece, in 384 BCE. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child, whereafter Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. At eighteen, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BCE). His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics and government – and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy. Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great between 356 and 323 BCE. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "Aristotle was the first genuine scientist in history. ... Every scientist is in his debt."

ELSEWHERE we have investigated in detail the movement of animals after their various kinds, the differences between them, and the reasons for their particular characters (for some animals fly, some swim, some walk, others move in various other ways); there remains an investigation of the common ground of any sort of animal movement whatsoever.

Now we have already determined (when we were discussing whether eternal motion exists or not, and its definition, if it does exist) that the origin of all other motions is that which moves itself, and that the origin of this is the immovable, and that the prime mover must of necessity be immovable. And we must grasp this not only generally in theory, but also by reference to individuals in the world of sense, for with these in view we seek general theories, and with these we believe that general theories ought to harmonize. Now in the world of sense too it is plainly impossible for movement to be initiated if there is nothing at rest, and before all else in our present subject- animal life. For if one of the parts of an animal be moved, another must be at rest, and this is the purpose of their joints; animals use joints like a centre, and the whole member, in which the joint is, becomes both one and two, both straight and bent, changing potentially and actually by reason of the joint. And when it is bending and being moved one of the points in the joint is moved and one is at rest, just as if the points A and D of a diameter were at rest, and B were moved, and DAC were generated. However, in the geometrical illustration, the centre is held to be altogether indivisible (for in mathematics motion is a fiction, as the phrase goes, no mathematical entity being really moved), whereas in the case of joints the centres become now one potentially and divided actually, and now one actually and divided potentially. But still the origin of movement, qua origin, always remains at rest when the lower part of a limb is moved; for example, the elbow joint, when the forearm is moved, and the shoulder, when the whole arm; the knee when the tibia is moved, and the hip when the whole leg. Accordingly it is plain that each animal as a whole must have within itself a point at rest, whence will be the origin of that which is moved, and supporting itself upon which it will be moved both as a complete whole and in its members.

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