伊索寓言(二)
Aesop's Fables Ⅱ

  • 作   者:

    伊索
    Aesop

  • 译   者:

    河南大学 王文飞 湖北咸宁学院翻译组

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    双语

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥3.90

  • 6(1人评过)
  •   评论(8)
  •   读后感(1)

一本经典名著就像一棵糖果树,更像一株向日葵,经过岁月长河的淘洗和沉淀,变为永恒的化石。但这种化石会呼吸、会眨眼,它们是有血有肉的精灵,焕发着迷人的光芒。名著,亦是成长的阶梯,通向梦想的天堂。从远古的回顾到今天的眺望,如果只选择停留在原点,便永远望不见地平线另一端的模样。成长,是一个过程,如果不能让脚步飞扬,那么就该让思想插上翅膀。童话与故事赐予我们想象,它们是基石,垫高我们迈向前方的脚。当我们把“为什么”变成惊叹号,当我们无畏地闯入大自然的怀抱,成长的轨迹便会向未来伸展成有力的形状。

《伊索寓言》是世界上最古老、最伟大的寓言集,被誉为西方寓言的始祖,它是世界上拥有读者最多的文学作品之一,对人类文化,尤其是西方伦理道德、政治思想影响深远,堪称人类文明史上的一座丰碑。书中的故事篇幅短小,寓意深刻,处处闪耀着智慧的光芒。柏拉图、亚里士多德、马克思等历代哲学家、思想家、政治家十分推崇此书。同时,此书也常常成为家庭教育的最佳教材和生活教科书。其中的经典名篇《龟兔赛跑》、《狐狸和葡萄》等在我国家喻户晓,还被编选入学生课本。

Aesop's Fables is said to be written by Aesop, an ancient Greek fable writer. It is said that he was a slave, who later got free and had since led an ordinary life. Aesop is a very wise man, which is illustrated by the several hundreds of fables fathered upon him handed down to this day. These tales tell us how to tell between friends and enemies, truths and lies. It also teaches people principles of dealing with people and handling affairs, and how to avoid potential danger by being careful and alert. This is a philosophical book of wisdom and also a practical textbook of living.

Some pieces in Aesop's Fables takes real people as characters. Other than that, they are mostly animal stories, which are featured by the personification of animals. The personification of animals comes from empirical observations of life and behavior of animals.

《伊索寓言》是一部寓言故事集。相传伊索是公元前6世纪古希腊人,善于讲动物故事。现存的《伊索寓言》,是古希腊、古罗马时代流传下来的故事,经后人汇集,统归在伊索名下。《伊索寓言》通过简短的小寓言故事来体现日常生活中那些不为我们察觉的真理。伊索寓言大多是动物故事,以动物为喻,教人处世和做人的道理。这些小故事主要是受欺凌的下层平民和奴隶的斗争经验与生活教训的总结。寓言通过描写动物之间的关系来表现当时的社会关系,主要是压迫者和被压迫者之间的不平等关系。寓言作者谴责当时社会上人压迫人的现象,号召受欺凌的人团结起来与恶人进行斗争。

Aesop's Fables is a collection of fables. Aesop probably lived in the middle part of the sixth century BC. He is said to be a quite skillful storyteller. The existing Aesop's Fables is a compilation of stories of ancient Rome and Greek by posterity under the name of Aesop. Aesop's Fables gives insight into the truths which are easily ignored in our daily life through short fables. Aesop's Fables are mostly animal stories. Using animal metaphor, Aesop's Fables teaches people principles of dealing with people and handling affairs. These short tales are mostly experiences and lessons drawn from life and struggle of the lower classes and slaves. The description of relationships between animals is very revealing about human relations, especially inequality between oppressors and the oppressed. The originator of the fables condemned the phenomenon of the exploitation of man by man, appealing to the united struggles of the people.

伊索,公元前6世纪古希腊的一个寓言家,弗里吉亚人。他与克雷洛夫、拉·封丹和莱辛并称世界四大寓言家。他曾是萨摩斯岛雅德蒙家的奴隶,被转卖多次,但因知识渊博,聪颖过人,最后获得自由。自由后,伊索开始环游世界,为人们讲述他的寓言故事,深受古希腊人民的喜爱。

公元前5世纪末,“伊索”这个名字已是古希腊尽人皆知的名字了,当时的古希腊寓言都归在他的名下。伊索并没有写下他的寓言,他完全凭记忆口述。现在常见的《伊索寓言》是后人根据拜占廷僧侣普拉努得斯搜集的寓言以及后来陆陆续续发现的古希腊寓言传抄本编订的。

Aesop probably lived in the middle part of the sixth century BC. A statement in Herodotus gives ground for thinking that he was a slave belonging to a citizen of Samos called Iadmon. Legend says that he was ugly and misshapen. There are many references to Aesop found in the Athenian writers: Aristophanes, Xenophon, Plato, Aristotle and others. It is not known whether he wrote down his fables himself, nor indeed how many of them are correctly attributed to his invention.

一位父亲在临死之际,想要确保他的儿子们也能像他一样重视自己的农场。于是,他把他们叫到自己的病榻前,说道:“我的儿子们啊,在我的其中一个葡萄园里藏有一大笔宝藏。”父亲死后,儿子们便拿起铁锹和鹤嘴锄,认真地刨遍了农场的每一块土地。他们没找到什么宝藏,但是丰硕的收成回报了他们的劳动。——《农夫和他的儿子们》

A Father, being on the point of death, wished to be sure that his sons would give the same attention to his farm as he himself had given it.He called them to his bedside and said, “My sons, there is a great treasure hid in one of my vineyards.”The sons, after his death, took their spades and mattocks and carefully dug over every portion of their land.They found no treasure, but the vines repaid their labor by an extraordinary and superabundant crop. —The Farmer and His Sons

《伊索寓言》的文字精炼,故事生动,充满了丰富的想象力,是一部富有哲理的智慧之书。篇幅都不长,也不拘泥于形式,于浅显的小故事中揭露大智慧。它是少年儿童的启蒙教材,让他们了解什么是善恶美丑,它同时也是一本生活教材,对世世代代都产生了深刻影响。

《伊索寓言》大可看得。它至少给予我们三种安慰。第一,这是一本古代的书,读了可以增进我们对于现代文明的骄傲。第二,它是一本小孩子读物,看了愈觉得我们是成人了,已超出那些幼稚的见解。第三呢,这部书差不多都是讲禽兽的,从禽兽变到人,你看这中间需要多少进化历程! ——钱锺书

《伊索寓言》通过简短的小寓言故事来体现日常生活中那些不为我们察觉的真理,这些小故事各具魅力,言简意赅,平易近人。不但读者众多,在文学史上也具有重大影响。作家、诗人、哲学家、平常百姓都从中得到过启发和乐趣。许多故事真可以说是家喻户晓,如“龟兔赛跑”“狼来了”等等。在几千年后的今天,《伊索寓言》已成为西方寓言文学的范本,也是世界上流传最广的经典作品之一。

伊索被誉为“希腊寓言之父”,“西方寓言的开山鼻祖”。

伊索寓言是世界上最古老、影响最大的寓言。

Apollonius of Tyana, a 1st century AD philosopher, is recorded as having said about Aesop:

...like those who dine well off the plainest dishes, he made use of humble incidents to teach great truths, and after serving up a story he adds to it the advice to do a thing or not to do it. Then, too, he was really more attached to truth than the poets are; for the latter do violence to their own stories in order to make them probable; but he by announcing a story which everyone knows not to be true, told the truth by the very fact that he did not claim to be relating real events. —Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Book V: 14

Socrates is said to have spent some of his time in jail versifying Aesop's fables.

  • 葡萄树与山羊

  • 朱庇特和猴子

  • 寡妇和她的小女仆们

  • 牧童和狼

  • 猫和鸟儿们

  • 小孩与狼

  • 公牛与青蛙

  • 牧羊人和狼

  • 父亲和他的两个女儿

  • 农夫和他的儿子们

  • 小螃蟹和它的妈妈

  • 母牛和公牛

  • 燕子、蛇和法院

  • 小偷和他的母亲

  • 老人和死神

  • 杉树与荆棘

  • 老鼠、青蛙和老鹰

  • 被狗咬了的人

  • 两只罐子

  • 狼和羊

  • 黑仆人

  • 渔夫和渔网

  • 渔夫和猎人

  • 老妪和酒坛子

  • 狐狸和乌鸦

  • 两只狗

  • 牛棚里的雄鹿

  • 老鹰、风筝与鸽子

  • 寡妇和羊

  • 野驴和狮子

  • 鹰和箭

  • 生病的风筝

  • 狮子与海豚

  • 狮子与野猪

  • 独眼的母鹿

  • 牧羊人与海

  • 驴、公鸡和狮子

  • 老鼠和鼬

  • 老鼠开会

  • 狼与看门狗

  • 河流与海

  • 顽皮的驴

  • 三个手艺人

  • 主人和狗

  • 狼和牧羊人

  • 海豚、鲸和西鲱鱼

  • 运神像的驴子

  • 两个旅行者和斧子

  • 老狮子

  • 老猎狗

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  • 挤牛奶的姑娘和她的奶桶

  • 海滨旅行者

  • 铜匠和他的狗

  • 驴子和它的影子

  • 驴子和它的主人

  • 橡树和芦苇

  • 渔夫和小鱼

  • 猎人和樵夫

  • 野猪和狐狸

  • 农场里的狮子

  • 墨丘利和雕刻家

  • 天鹅与家鹅

  • 肚胀的狐狸

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  • 捕鸟人、山鹑和公鸡

  • 猴子和渔夫

  • 跳蚤与摔跤运动员

  • 两只青蛙

  • 猫和老鼠

  • The Vine and the Goat

  • Jupiter and the Monkey

  • The Widow and Her Little Maidens

  • The Shepherd’s Boy and the Wolf

  • The Cat and the Birds

  • The Kid and the Wolf

  • The Ox and the Frog

  • The Shepherd and the Wolf

  • The Father and His Two Daughters

  • The Farmer and His Sons

  • The Crab and Its Mother

  • The Heifer and the Ox

  • The Swallow, the Serpent, and the Court of Justice

  • The Thief and His Mother

  • The Old Man and Death

  • The Fir Tree and the Bramble

  • The Mouse, the Frog, and the Hawk

  • The Man Bitten by a Dog

  • The Two Pots

  • The Wolf and the Sheep

  • The Aethiop

  • The Fisherman and His Nets

  • The Huntsman and the Fisherman

  • The Old Woman and the Wine Jar

  • The Fox and the Crow

  • The Two Dogs

  • The Stag in the Ox-Stall

  • The Hawk, the Kite, and the Pigeons

  • The Widow and the Sheep

  • The Wild Ass and the Lion

  • The Eagle and the Arrow

  • The Sick Kite

  • The Lion and the Dolphin

  • The Lion and the Boar

  • The One-Eyed Doe

  • The Shepherd and the Sea

  • The Ass, the Cock, and the Lion

  • The Mice and the Weasels

  • The Mice in Council

  • The Wolf and the Housedog

  • The Rivers and the Sea

  • The Playful Ass

  • The Three Tradesmen

  • The Master and His Dogs

  • The Wolf and the Shepherds

  • The Dolphins, the Whales, and the Sprat

  • The Ass Carrying the Image

  • The Two Travelers and the Axe

  • The Old Lion

  • The Old Hound

  • The Bee and Jupiter

  • The Milk-Woman and Her Pail

  • The Seaside Travelers

  • The Brazier and His Dog

  • The Ass and His Shadow

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  • The Fisherman and the Little Fish

  • The Hunter and the Woodman

  • The Wild Boar and the Fox

  • The Lion in a Farmyard

  • Mercury and the Sculptor

  • The Swan and the Goose

  • The Swollen Fox

  • The Fox and the Woodcutter

  • The Bird catcher, the Partridge, and the Cock

  • The Monkey and the Fishermen

  • The Flea and the Wrestler

  • The Two Frogs

  • The Cat and the Mice

  • 寓言的道理

    尽管现在读伊索寓言,感觉真的有些幼稚,但是我不得不说,那些看来很幼稚的语言确实蕴藏着很深刻的道理,它能够教会我们如何辨明真假,如何与人相处,如何认识成功与失败。这些道理在我们的现实生活中是不可或缺的,而且伊索寓言的形势比较容易让人接受,它不不是长篇大论的说教。而是通过一些动物的语言和行为,将动物拟人化,给人以教育,……展开↓

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