伊索寓言(四)
Aesop's Fables Ⅳ

  • 作   者:

    伊索
    Aesop

  • 译   者:

    河南大学 王文飞 湖北咸宁学院翻译组

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    双语

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥3.90

  • 8(1人评过)
  •   评论(7)
  •   读后感(1)

一本经典名著就像一棵糖果树,更像一株向日葵,经过岁月长河的淘洗和沉淀,变为永恒的化石。但这种化石会呼吸、会眨眼,它们是有血有肉的精灵,焕发着迷人的光芒。名著,亦是成长的阶梯,通向梦想的天堂。从远古的回顾到今天的眺望,如果只选择停留在原点,便永远望不见地平线另一端的模样。成长,是一个过程,如果不能让脚步飞扬,那么就该让思想插上翅膀。童话与故事赐予我们想象,它们是基石,垫高我们迈向前方的脚。当我们把“为什么”变成惊叹号,当我们无畏地闯入大自然的怀抱,成长的轨迹便会向未来伸展成有力的形状。

《伊索寓言》是世界上最古老、最伟大的寓言集,被誉为西方寓言的始祖,它是世界上拥有读者最多的文学作品之一,对人类文化,尤其是西方伦理道德、政治思想影响深远,堪称人类文明史上的一座丰碑。书中的故事篇幅短小,寓意深刻,处处闪耀着智慧的光芒。柏拉图、亚里士多德、马克思等历代哲学家、思想家、政治家十分推崇此书。同时,此书也常常成为家庭教育的最佳教材和生活教科书。其中的经典名篇《龟兔赛跑》、《狐狸和葡萄》等在我国家喻户晓,还被编选入学生课本。

Aesop's Fables is said to be written by Aesop, an ancient Greek fable writer. It is said that he was a slave, who later got free and had since led an ordinary life. Aesop is a very wise man, which is illustrated by the several hundreds of fables fathered upon him handed down to this day. These tales tell us how to tell between friends and enemies, truths and lies. It also teaches people principles of dealing with people and handling affairs, and how to avoid potential danger by being careful and alert. This is a philosophical book of wisdom and also a practical textbook of living.

Some pieces in Aesop's Fables takes real people as characters. Other than that, they are mostly animal stories, which are featured by the personification of animals. The personification of animals comes from empirical observations of life and behavior of animals.

《伊索寓言》是一部寓言故事集。相传伊索是公元前6世纪古希腊人,善于讲动物故事。现存的《伊索寓言》,是古希腊、古罗马时代流传下来的故事,经后人汇集,统归在伊索名下。《伊索寓言》通过简短的小寓言故事来体现日常生活中那些不为我们察觉的真理。伊索寓言大多是动物故事,以动物为喻,教人处世和做人的道理。这些小故事主要是受欺凌的下层平民和奴隶的斗争经验与生活教训的总结。寓言通过描写动物之间的关系来表现当时的社会关系,主要是压迫者和被压迫者之间的不平等关系。寓言作者谴责当时社会上人压迫人的现象,号召受欺凌的人团结起来与恶人进行斗争。

Aesop's Fables is a collection of fables. Aesop probably lived in the middle part of the sixth century BC. He is said to be a quite skillful storyteller. The existing Aesop's Fables is a compilation of stories of ancient Rome and Greek by posterity under the name of Aesop. Aesop's Fables gives insight into the truths which are easily ignored in our daily life through short fables. Aesop's Fables are mostly animal stories. Using animal metaphor, Aesop's Fables teaches people principles of dealing with people and handling affairs. These short tales are mostly experiences and lessons drawn from life and struggle of the lower classes and slaves. The description of relationships between animals is very revealing about human relations, especially inequality between oppressors and the oppressed. The originator of the fables condemned the phenomenon of the exploitation of man by man, appealing to the united struggles of the people.

伊索,公元前6世纪古希腊的一个寓言家,弗里吉亚人。他与克雷洛夫、拉·封丹和莱辛并称世界四大寓言家。他曾是萨摩斯岛雅德蒙家的奴隶,被转卖多次,但因知识渊博,聪颖过人,最后获得自由。自由后,伊索开始环游世界,为人们讲述他的寓言故事,深受古希腊人民的喜爱。

公元前5世纪末,“伊索”这个名字已是古希腊尽人皆知的名字了,当时的古希腊寓言都归在他的名下。伊索并没有写下他的寓言,他完全凭记忆口述。现在常见的《伊索寓言》是后人根据拜占廷僧侣普拉努得斯搜集的寓言以及后来陆陆续续发现的古希腊寓言传抄本编订的。

Aesop probably lived in the middle part of the sixth century BC. A statement in Herodotus gives ground for thinking that he was a slave belonging to a citizen of Samos called Iadmon. Legend says that he was ugly and misshapen. There are many references to Aesop found in the Athenian writers: Aristophanes, Xenophon, Plato, Aristotle and others. It is not known whether he wrote down his fables himself, nor indeed how many of them are correctly attributed to his invention.

路旁矗立着一棵胡桃树,树上结满了果实。为了吃这些果实,路人用石头砸、用棍棒打,将胡桃树的树枝折断了。胡桃树哀怨地叫道:“噢,我真不幸啊!我为人们献出了自己的果实,却换来他们的一顿痛打!”——《胡桃树》

A Walnut-Tree standing by the roadside bore an abundant crop of fruit.For the sake of the nuts, the passers-by broke its branches with stones and sticks.The Walnut-Tree piteously exclaimed, “O wretched me! that those whom I cheer with my friut should repay me with these painful requitals!”—The Walnut-Tree

《伊索寓言》的文字精炼,故事生动,充满了丰富的想象力,是一部富有哲理的智慧之书。篇幅都不长,也不拘泥于形式,于浅显的小故事中揭露大智慧。它是少年儿童的启蒙教材,让他们了解什么是善恶美丑,它同时也是一本生活教材,对世世代代都产生了深刻影响。

《伊索寓言》大可看得。它至少给予我们三种安慰。第一,这是一本古代的书,读了可以增进我们对于现代文明的骄傲。第二,它是一本小孩子读物,看了愈觉得我们是成人了,已超出那些幼稚的见解。第三呢,这部书差不多都是讲禽兽的,从禽兽变到人,你看这中间需要多少进化历程! ——钱锺书

《伊索寓言》通过简短的小寓言故事来体现日常生活中那些不为我们察觉的真理,这些小故事各具魅力,言简意赅,平易近人。不但读者众多,在文学史上也具有重大影响。作家、诗人、哲学家、平常百姓都从中得到过启发和乐趣。许多故事真可以说是家喻户晓,如“龟兔赛跑”“狼来了”等等。在几千年后的今天,《伊索寓言》已成为西方寓言文学的范本,也是世界上流传最广的经典作品之一。

伊索被誉为“希腊寓言之父”,“西方寓言的开山鼻祖”。

伊索寓言是世界上最古老、影响最大的寓言。

Apollonius of Tyana, a 1st century AD philosopher, is recorded as having said about Aesop:

...like those who dine well off the plainest dishes, he made use of humble incidents to teach great truths, and after serving up a story he adds to it the advice to do a thing or not to do it. Then, too, he was really more attached to truth than the poets are; for the latter do violence to their own stories in order to make them probable; but he by announcing a story which everyone knows not to be true, told the truth by the very fact that he did not claim to be relating real events. —Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Book V: 14

Socrates is said to have spent some of his time in jail versifying Aesop's fables.

  • 胡桃树

  • 蚊子和狮子

  • 猴子和海豚

  • 寒鸦和鸽子

  • 马和牡鹿

  • 孩子和狼

  • 狐狸和猴子

  • 预言家

  • 小偷和看家狗

  • 人、马、牛和狗

  • 猿猴和两个旅行者

  • 狼和牧羊人

  • 野兔和狮子

  • 云雀和小云雀

  • 狐狸和狮子

  • 黄鼠狼和老鼠

  • 驴和狼

  • 卖神像的人

  • 狐狸和葡萄

  • 男人和他的妻子

  • 孔雀和女神朱诺

  • 鹰和夜莺

  • 狗、公鸡和狐狸

  • 狼和山羊

  • 狮子和公牛

  • 山羊和驴

  • 城里老鼠和乡下老鼠

  • 狼、狐狸和猿猴

  • 苍蝇和拉车的骡子

  • 渔夫的故事

  • 狮子和三头公牛

  • 捕鸟人和毒蛇

  • 狐狸和面具

  • 鹅和鹤

  • 盲人和幼兽

  • 狗和狐狸

  • 鞋匠改行当医生

  • 狼和马

  • 兄妹俩

  • 黄蜂、山鹑和农民

  • 乌鸦和墨丘利

  • 北风和太阳

  • 两个为敌的男人

  • 斗鸡和山鹑

  • 冒牌蛙医生

  • 狮子、狼和狐狸

  • 狗的房子

  • 狼和狮子

  • 鸟类、兽类和蝙蝠

  • 挥霍的人和燕子

  • 狐狸和狮子

  • 猫头鹰和鸟

  • 号兵入狱

  • 穿着狮子皮的驴

  • 麻雀和野兔

  • 跳蚤和公牛

  • 鸽子和乌鸦

  • 墨丘利和工匠

  • 鹰和寒鸦

  • The Walnut-Tree

  • The Gnat and the Lion

  • The Monkey and the Dolphin

  • The Jackdaw and the Doves

  • The Horse and the Stag

  • The Kid and the Wolf

  • The Fox and the Monkey

  • The Prophet

  • The Thief and the Housedog

  • The Man, the Horse, the Ox, and the Dog

  • The Apes and the Two Travelers

  • The Wolf and the Shepherd

  • The Hares and the Lions

  • The Lark and Her Young Ones

  • The Fox and the Lion

  • The Weasel and the Mice

  • The Ass and the Wolf

  • The Seller of Images

  • The Fox and the Grapes

  • The Man and His Wife

  • The Peacock and Juno

  • The Hawk and the Nightingale

  • The Dog, the Cock, and the Fox

  • The Wolf and the Goat

  • The Lion and the Bull

  • The Goat and the Ass

  • The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse

  • The Wolf, the Fox, and the Ape

  • The Fly and the Draught-Mule

  • The Fishermen

  • The Lion and the Three Bulls

  • The Fowler and the Viper

  • The Horse and the Ass

  • The Fox and the Mask

  • The Geese and the Cranes

  • The Blind Man and the Whelp

  • The Dogs and the Fox

  • The Cobbler Turned Doctor

  • The Wolf and the Horse

  • The Brother and the Sister

  • The Wasps, the Partridges, and the Farmer

  • The Crow and Mercury

  • The North Wind and the Sun

  • The Two Men Who Were Enemies

  • The Gamecocks and the Partridge

  • The Quack Frog

  • The Lion, the Wolf, and the Fox

  • The Dog’s House

  • The Wolf and the Lion

  • The Birds, the Beasts, and the Bat

  • The Spendthrift and the Swallow

  • The Fox and the Lion

  • The Owl and the Birds

  • The Trumpeter Taken Prisoner

  • The Ass in the Lion’s Skin

  • The Sparrow and the Hare

  • The Flea and the Ox

  • The Dove and the Crow

  • Mercury and the Workmen

  • The Eagle and the Jackdaw

  • 学习寓言

    在这几篇寓言当中给我印象最深的莫过于,蚊子、狮子和蜘蛛那篇了,蚊子仗着自己身材轻小,动作敏捷,将狮子叮的鲜血淋漓,从而在与狮子的打斗中获得了最终胜利,但却在它为着自己的胜利得意洋洋之时,却不幸撞到了蜘蛛网,被任何人都不把其放在眼里的蜘蛛吃掉了。这篇寓言看似简单,却蕴含着很深的哲理,这就是不能过分自信,人应当学会正确……展开↓

    暂时还没有评论,去书内看看…
  • 鹰插话道:“要是为了追那些还没影儿的鸟而放走已经到手的食物,那我真是疯了。” 全部评论(2) 去书内

    我们做事情应该先学会认清自己的长处和短处,这样才可以少走弯路,事半功倍。

    2013-06-16 喜欢(0) 回复(0)

  • 墨丘利对他的欺骗行为感到生气,不仅拿走了金斧,而且拒绝为他找回他丢进水塘里的那把斧头。 全部评论(2) 去书内

    见好就收不仅是一种智慧,更是一种哲学。

    2013-06-16 喜欢(0) 回复(0)

  • 墨丘利对他的欺骗行为感到生气,不仅拿走了金斧,而且拒绝为他找回他丢进水塘里的那把斧头。 全部评论(2) 去书内

    贪婪往往使自己血本无归,人应该学会的是见好就收。

    2013-06-15 喜欢(0) 回复(1)

  • 毒蛇转身咬了他一口,猎人昏厥之时自言自语道:“我真是可悲啊!我本打算捕鸟,结果自己却不知不觉落入了死亡的陷阱。” 全部评论(1) 去书内

    这则语言提醒了我们,在做事情的时候不能只顾眼前的利益,否则就只有死路一条。

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  • 不诚实的人,即使诚实行事,也得不到信任。 全部评论(1) 去书内

    的确是这样,不诚实的人因为他的不诚实,而在人们的心中留下了不良的印象,其实日后在诚实的行事,也不会得到其他人的信任。

    2013-06-15 喜欢(0) 回复(0)

  • 鹰插话道:“要是为了追那些还没影儿的鸟而放走已经到手的食物,那我真是疯了。” 全部评论(2) 去书内

    鹰还是比较明智的,这也影射了我们日常生活中的一个道理,切勿一味的好高骛远。

    2013-06-15 喜欢(0) 回复(1)

  • 可没过多久,蚊子就被一个蜘蛛网粘住,让一只蜘蛛给吃掉了。他深深地哀叹自己的命运:“真是可悲啊!我能成功地战胜最强大的野兽,却... 全部评论(1) 去书内

    这个结局说明了,我们每个人都需要认清自己的长处与短处,学习别人的长处,弥补自己的短处。

    2013-06-15 喜欢(0) 回复(0)