伊索寓言(五)
Aesop's Fables Ⅴ

  • 作   者:

    伊索
    Aesop

  • 译   者:

    河南大学 王文飞 湖北咸宁学院翻译组

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    双语

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥3.90

  • 9.3(3人评过)
  •   评论(8)
  •   读后感(1)

一本经典名著就像一棵糖果树,更像一株向日葵,经过岁月长河的淘洗和沉淀,变为永恒的化石。但这种化石会呼吸、会眨眼,它们是有血有肉的精灵,焕发着迷人的光芒。名著,亦是成长的阶梯,通向梦想的天堂。从远古的回顾到今天的眺望,如果只选择停留在原点,便永远望不见地平线另一端的模样。成长,是一个过程,如果不能让脚步飞扬,那么就该让思想插上翅膀。童话与故事赐予我们想象,它们是基石,垫高我们迈向前方的脚。当我们把“为什么”变成惊叹号,当我们无畏地闯入大自然的怀抱,成长的轨迹便会向未来伸展成有力的形状。

《伊索寓言》是世界上最古老、最伟大的寓言集,被誉为西方寓言的始祖,它是世界上拥有读者最多的文学作品之一,对人类文化,尤其是西方伦理道德、政治思想影响深远,堪称人类文明史上的一座丰碑。书中的故事篇幅短小,寓意深刻,处处闪耀着智慧的光芒。柏拉图、亚里士多德、马克思等历代哲学家、思想家、政治家十分推崇此书。同时,此书也常常成为家庭教育的最佳教材和生活教科书。其中的经典名篇《龟兔赛跑》、《狐狸和葡萄》等在我国家喻户晓,还被编选入学生课本。

Aesop's Fables is said to be written by Aesop, an ancient Greek fable writer. It is said that he was a slave, who later got free and had since led an ordinary life. Aesop is a very wise man, which is illustrated by the several hundreds of fables fathered upon him handed down to this day. These tales tell us how to tell between friends and enemies, truths and lies. It also teaches people principles of dealing with people and handling affairs, and how to avoid potential danger by being careful and alert. This is a philosophical book of wisdom and also a practical textbook of living.

Some pieces in Aesop's Fables takes real people as characters. Other than that, they are mostly animal stories, which are featured by the personification of animals. The personification of animals comes from empirical observations of life and behavior of animals.

《伊索寓言》是一部寓言故事集。相传伊索是公元前6世纪古希腊人,善于讲动物故事。现存的《伊索寓言》,是古希腊、古罗马时代流传下来的故事,经后人汇集,统归在伊索名下。《伊索寓言》通过简短的小寓言故事来体现日常生活中那些不为我们察觉的真理。伊索寓言大多是动物故事,以动物为喻,教人处世和做人的道理。这些小故事主要是受欺凌的下层平民和奴隶的斗争经验与生活教训的总结。寓言通过描写动物之间的关系来表现当时的社会关系,主要是压迫者和被压迫者之间的不平等关系。寓言作者谴责当时社会上人压迫人的现象,号召受欺凌的人团结起来与恶人进行斗争。

Aesop's Fables is a collection of fables. Aesop probably lived in the middle part of the sixth century BC. He is said to be a quite skillful storyteller. The existing Aesop's Fables is a compilation of stories of ancient Rome and Greek by posterity under the name of Aesop. Aesop's Fables gives insight into the truths which are easily ignored in our daily life through short fables. Aesop's Fables are mostly animal stories. Using animal metaphor, Aesop's Fables teaches people principles of dealing with people and handling affairs. These short tales are mostly experiences and lessons drawn from life and struggle of the lower classes and slaves. The description of relationships between animals is very revealing about human relations, especially inequality between oppressors and the oppressed. The originator of the fables condemned the phenomenon of the exploitation of man by man, appealing to the united struggles of the people.

伊索,公元前6世纪古希腊的一个寓言家,弗里吉亚人。他与克雷洛夫、拉·封丹和莱辛并称世界四大寓言家。他曾是萨摩斯岛雅德蒙家的奴隶,被转卖多次,但因知识渊博,聪颖过人,最后获得自由。自由后,伊索开始环游世界,为人们讲述他的寓言故事,深受古希腊人民的喜爱。

公元前5世纪末,“伊索”这个名字已是古希腊尽人皆知的名字了,当时的古希腊寓言都归在他的名下。伊索并没有写下他的寓言,他完全凭记忆口述。现在常见的《伊索寓言》是后人根据拜占廷僧侣普拉努得斯搜集的寓言以及后来陆陆续续发现的古希腊寓言传抄本编订的。

Aesop probably lived in the middle part of the sixth century BC. A statement in Herodotus gives ground for thinking that he was a slave belonging to a citizen of Samos called Iadmon. Legend says that he was ugly and misshapen. There are many references to Aesop found in the Athenian writers: Aristophanes, Xenophon, Plato, Aristotle and others. It is not known whether he wrote down his fables himself, nor indeed how many of them are correctly attributed to his invention.

有个人想买头驴,他和驴的主人约定他要在买之前试试那头驴。他带那头驴回家,将它和其他的驴一起放在马厩中,这个新来的驴子离开了其他所有的驴,立刻和那个最闲而且吃得最多的驴在一起。看见这一切,那人在它头上套上缰绳,带着它回到了它主人那里。当他被问到如何在这么短的时间里就对驴做了试验,他回答道:“我不需要试验了,我知道它会和那个它选作同伴的驴一模一样。”从一个人所结交的朋友就可以了解他。——《驴和它的买主》

A man wished to purchase an Ass, and agreed with its owner that he should try out the animal before he bought him.He took the Ass home and put him in the straw-yard with his other Asses, upon which the new animal left all the others and at once joined the one that was most idle and the greatest eater of them all.Seeing this, the man put a halter on him and led him back to his owner.On being asked how, in so short a time, he could have made a trial of him, he answered, “I do not need a trial; I know that he will be just the same as the one he chose for his companion.”A man is known by the company he keeps. —The Ass and His Purchaser

《伊索寓言》的文字精炼,故事生动,充满了丰富的想象力,是一部富有哲理的智慧之书。篇幅都不长,也不拘泥于形式,于浅显的小故事中揭露大智慧。它是少年儿童的启蒙教材,让他们了解什么是善恶美丑,它同时也是一本生活教材,对世世代代都产生了深刻影响。

《伊索寓言》大可看得。它至少给予我们三种安慰。第一,这是一本古代的书,读了可以增进我们对于现代文明的骄傲。第二,它是一本小孩子读物,看了愈觉得我们是成人了,已超出那些幼稚的见解。第三呢,这部书差不多都是讲禽兽的,从禽兽变到人,你看这中间需要多少进化历程! ——钱锺书

《伊索寓言》通过简短的小寓言故事来体现日常生活中那些不为我们察觉的真理,这些小故事各具魅力,言简意赅,平易近人。不但读者众多,在文学史上也具有重大影响。作家、诗人、哲学家、平常百姓都从中得到过启发和乐趣。许多故事真可以说是家喻户晓,如“龟兔赛跑”“狼来了”等等。在几千年后的今天,《伊索寓言》已成为西方寓言文学的范本,也是世界上流传最广的经典作品之一。

伊索被誉为“希腊寓言之父”,“西方寓言的开山鼻祖”。

《伊索寓言》是世界上最古老、影响最大的寓言。

Apollonius of Tyana, a 1st century AD philosopher, is recorded as having said about Aesop:

...like those who dine well off the plainest dishes, he made use of humble incidents to teach great truths, and after serving up a story he adds to it the advice to do a thing or not to do it. Then, too, he was really more attached to truth than the poets are; for the latter do violence to their own stories in order to make them probable; but he by announcing a story which everyone knows not to be true, told the truth by the very fact that he did not claim to be relating real events. —Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Book V: 14

Socrates is said to have spent some of his time in jail versifying Aesop's fables.

  • 狐狸和鹤

  • 朱庇特、尼普顿、密涅瓦和莫摩斯

  • 鹰和狐狸

  • 人和森林之神萨梯

  • 驴和它的买主

  • 两个包袱

  • 池边的牡鹿

  • 寒鸦和狐狸

  • 葬父的云雀

  • 蚊子和公牛

  • 母狗和它的小狗

  • 狗和牛皮

  • 牧羊人和羊群

  • 蚱蜢和猫头鹰

  • 猴子和骆驼

  • 农夫和苹果树

  • 两个士兵和一个抢匪

  • 受诸神庇护的树木

  • 母亲和狼

  • 驴和马

  • 真理与旅行者

  • 杀人犯

  • 狮子与狐狸

  • 狮子与鹰

  • 母鸡与燕子

  • 小丑和农夫

  • 乌鸦与蛇

  • 猎人与骑士

  • 国王的儿子与画上的狮子

  • 猫与维纳斯

  • 母山羊和她们的胡须

  • 骆驼与阿拉伯人

  • 磨坊主、他的儿子和他们的驴

  • 乌鸦与羊

  • 狐狸和荆棘

  • 狼和狮子

  • 狗与牡蛎

  • 蚂蚁和鸽子

  • 山鹑和捕鸟人

  • 跳蚤和人

  • 小偷与公鸡

  • 狗与厨师

  • 行人和梧桐树

  • 野兔与青蛙

  • 狮子、朱庇特和大象

  • 富人与制皮匠

  • 遭遇海难的人与海

  • 骡子和强盗

  • 毒蛇与锉刀

  • 狮子与牧羊人

  • 骆驼和朱庇特

  • 豹子和牧羊人

  • 驴和军马

  • 鹰和捕捉它的人

  • 秃顶的男人和苍蝇

  • 橄榄树和无花果树

  • 鹰和风筝

  • 画眉鸟和捕鸟人

  • 玫瑰与不凋花

  • The Fox and the Crane

  • Jupiter, Neptune, Minerva, and Momus

  • The Eagle and the Fox

  • The Man and the Satyr

  • The Ass and His Purchaser

  • The Two Bags

  • The Stag at the Pool

  • The Jackdaw and the Fox

  • The Lark Burying Her Father

  • The Gnat and the Bull

  • The Bitch and Her Whelps

  • The Dogs and the Hides

  • The Shepherd and the Sheep

  • The Grasshopper and the Owl

  • The Monkey and the Camel

  • The Peasant and the Apple-Tree

  • The Two Soldiers and the Robber

  • The Trees Under the Protection of the Gods

  • The Mother and the Wolf

  • The Ass and the Horse

  • Truth and the Traveler

  • The Manslayer

  • The Lion and the Fox

  • The Lion and the Eagle

  • The Hen and the Swallow

  • The Buffoon and the Countryman

  • The Crow and the Serpent

  • The Hunter and the Horseman

  • The King’s Son and the Painted Lion

  • The Cat and Venus

  • The She-Goats and Their Beards

  • The Camel and the Arab

  • The Miller, His Son, and Their Ass

  • The Crow and the Sheep

  • The Fox and the Bramble

  • The Wolf and the Lion

  • The Dog and the Oyster

  • The Ant and the Dove

  • The Partridge and the Fowler

  • The Flea and the Man

  • The Thieves and the Cock

  • The Dog and the Cook

  • The Travelers and the Plane-Tree

  • The Hares and the Frogs

  • The Lion, Jupiter, and the Elephant

  • The Rich Man and the Tanner

  • The Shipwrecked Man and the Sea

  • The Mules and the Robbers

  • The Viper and the File

  • The Lion and the Shepherd

  • The Camel and Jupiter

  • The Panther and the Shepherds

  • The Ass and the Charger

  • The Eagle and His Captor

  • The Bald Man and the Fly

  • The Olive-Tree and the Fig-Tree

  • The Eagle and the Kite

  • The Thrush and the Fowler

  • The Rose and the Amaranth

  • 寓言的启示

    在这一系列寓言中,给我印象最深的是牡鹿和狮子的故事,在这则寓言中,牡鹿总是欣赏自己那优美的鹿角,却十分嫌弃自己那瘦弱的脚。但是当狮子来追它的时候,帮助它逃命的确实它那一直被它嫌弃的瘦弱的脚。而最终让它命丧狮口的却是它那被它一直欣赏的优美的鹿角。我认为这则寓言对于我们来说十分具有现实意义,我们应该人情自己的优点和缺点……展开↓