教育漫话(英文版)
Some Thoughts Concerning Education

  • 作   者:

    约翰·洛克
    John Locke

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    英文

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥5.90

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全书的主题是论述“绅士教育”,即论述刚夺得政权的英国资产阶级与新贵族的子弟的教育。洛克认为,绅士要既有贵族的风度,能活跃于上流社会和政治舞台,又有事业家的进取精神,是发展资产阶级经济的实干人才;绅士应受体育、德育和智育等方面的教育。

全书共分3部分。第一部分论述体育。洛克认为,健康的精神寓于健康的身体,要防止在衣着、饮食、动静、药物使用等各方面对孩子们娇生惯养,要锻炼出他们能够忍耐劳苦的强健体魄。

第二部分论述德育。洛克认为,在绅士的各种品行中,德行应占第一位。真正的绅士要善于获得自己的幸福,而又不妨碍其他绅士获得幸福;德育的基本原则是以理智克制欲望。洛克所说的“理智”是资产阶级利己主义的理智,克制欲望的最终目的在于获得个人名利。他反对溺爱,认为被溺爱的孩子必然任性、贪心。在道德教育方面,他重视说理,但认为主要方法还是通过实践,养成习惯。他重视环境与榜样的作用,主张奖励与惩罚要运用得当。洛克认为绅士的第二种美德是良好的礼仪,他要求绅士的言语、动作都要符合其等级与地位,对人谦恭有礼,举止得体。他认为这是“处世的真诀”,可以使自己获得他人的尊重与好感,从而获得一切。为了养成良好的德行与礼仪,他主张要多交朋友,多与上流社会的人相处,防止从“下贱的仆人”那里受到“邪恶”的影响。

第三部分论述智育。洛克认为绅士需要的是事业家的知识,不应局限于学习拉丁文和希腊文。他主张在读、写、算之外,还要学习天文、地理、历史、法律、几何、簿记、法语等等,也要学点工业、农业、园艺的知识和技艺,以利于管理企业,并从这些有益的体力活动中得到消遣,从而使生活更加丰富。在教学方法上,他反对死记硬背,重视培养智力,多作实地观察,诱发学习兴趣。

洛克认为英国当时的一般学校成分复杂,学生教养恶劣,不利于绅士的培养。他主张严格、慎重地挑选德行、能力好,并且娴于礼仪,精通人情世故的导师,从幼年起就对未来的绅士进行家庭教育。

Some Thoughts Concerning Education is a 1693 treatise on the education of gentlemen written by the English philosopher John Locke. For over a century, it was the most important philosophical work on education in England. It was translated into almost all of the major written European languages during the eighteenth century, and nearly every European writer on education after Locke, including Jean-Jacques Rousseau, acknowledged its influence.

本书是英国唯物主义哲学家J.洛克(John Locke,1632年8月29日-1704年10月28日)的教育代表作。由作者流亡荷兰期间(1683-1689)写给友人E.克拉克讨论其子女的教育问题的几封信整理而成。1693年出版。

《教育漫话》几个世纪以来一直是英国最重要的一本教育哲学著作。在18世纪,这本书几乎被翻译成所有欧洲语言,洛克以后的教育家,包括让-雅克·卢梭,都承认这本书的价值和影响。

全书的主题是论述“绅士教育”,即论述刚夺得政权的英国资产阶级与新贵族的子弟的教育洛克认为,绅士要既有贵族的风度,能活跃于上流社会和政治舞台,又有事业家的进取精神,是发展资产阶级经济的实干人才;绅士应受体育、德育和智育等方面的教育。

《教育漫话》在西方教育史上第一次将教育分为体育、德育、智育三部分,并作了详细论述。它强调环境与教育的巨大作用,强调在体魄与德行方面进行刻苦锻炼。这些思想对西方近代教育思想,特别是对18世纪的法国教育家影响很深。

Some Thoughts Concerning Education is a 1693 treatise on the education of gentlemen written by the English philosopher John Locke. For over a century, it was the most important philosophical work on education in England. It was translated into almost all of the major written European languages during the eighteenth century, and nearly every European writer on education after Locke, including Jean-Jacques Rousseau, acknowledged its influence.

约翰·洛克(John Locke,1632年8月29日-1704年10月28日)是英国的哲学家。在知识论上,洛克与乔治·贝克莱、大卫·休谟三人被列为英国经验主义(pragmatism)的代表人物,但他也在社会契约理论上做出重要贡献。他发展出了一套与托马斯·霍布斯的自然状态不同的理论,主张政府只有在取得被统治者的同意,并且保障人民拥有生命、自由和财产的自然权利时,其统治才有正当性。洛克相信只有在取得被统治者的同意时,社会契约才会成立,如果缺乏了这种同意,那么人民便有推翻政府的权利。

洛克的思想对于后代政治哲学的发展产生巨大影响,并且被广泛视为是启蒙时代最具影响力的思想家和自由主义者。他的著作也大为影响了伏尔泰和卢梭,以及许多苏格兰启蒙运动的思想家和美国开国元勋。他的理论被反映在美国的独立宣言上。

洛克的精神哲学理论通常被视为是现代主义中“本体”以及自我理论的奠基者,也影响了后来大卫·休谟、让·雅各·卢梭、与伊曼努尔·康德等人的著作。洛克是第一个以连续的“意识”来定义自我概念的哲学家,他也提出了心灵是一块“白板”的假设。与笛卡尔或基督教哲学不同的是,洛克认为人生下来是不带有任何记忆和思想的。

John Locke FRS (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704), was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.

Locke's theory of mind is often cited as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and the self, figuring prominently in the work of later philosophers such as Hume, Rousseau, and Kant. Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness. He postulated that, at birth, the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa. Contrary to Cartesian philosophy based on pre-existing concepts, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception.

  • Introductory Note

  • Dedication

  • Some Thoughts Concerning Education Part I.

  • Some Thoughts Concerning Education Part II.

  • Some Thoughts Concerning Education Part III.

  • Some Thoughts Concerning Education Part IV.

  • Some Thoughts Concerning Education Part V.

  • Some Thoughts Concerning Education Part VI.

  • Some Thoughts Concerning Education Part VII.

  • Some Thoughts Concerning Education Part VIII.

  • Some Thoughts Concerning Education Part IX.

  • Some Thoughts Concerning Education Part X.

  • When Grammar should be taught? Part I.

  • When Grammar should be taught? Part II.

  • When Grammar should be taught? Part III.

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