论人类不平等的起源和基础(英文版)
A Discourse upon the Origin and the Foundation of the Inequality Among Mankind

  • 作   者:

    让-雅克·卢梭
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    英文

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  • 电子书:

    ¥6.90

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野蛮人为自己活着,而社会中的人永远是身不由己。

The text was written in 1754 in response to a prize competition of the Academy of Dijon answering the prompt: What is the origin of inequality among people, and is it authorized by natural law? Though he was not recognized by the prize committee for this piece (as he had been for the Discourse on the Arts and Sciences) he nevertheless published the text in 1755.

本书是1754年卢梭应法国第戎科学院的征文而写的论文。在性质上,这是一部阐发政治思想的著作,其重要性仅次于1762年卢梭的《社会契约论》;而在思想体系上,本书可视为《社会契约论》的基础的绪论。当卢梭同时代的一些哲学家把人类的进步设想为一个不断上升的过程时,卢梭却已发现人类历史发展本身所具有的两面性(进步与落后)和所包含的内在矛盾。他认为贫困和奴役,亦即人类不平等的产物。

Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men (French: Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes), also commonly known as the "Second Discourse", is a work by philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Rousseau first exposes in this work his conception of a human state of nature, presented as a philosophical fiction (like by Thomas Hobbes, unlike by John Locke), and of human perfectibility, an early idea of progress. He then explains the way, according to him, people may have established civil society, which leads him to present private property as the original source and basis of all inequality.

卢梭(Jean-Jacques Rousseau,让-雅各·卢梭,1712-1778)是法国著名启蒙思想家、哲学家、教育家、文学家,是18世纪法国大革命的思想先驱,启蒙运动最卓越的代表人物之一。在哲学上,卢梭主张:感觉是认识的来源,坚持“自然神论”的观点;强调人性本善,信仰高于理性。在社会观上,卢梭坚持社会契约论,主张建立资产阶级的“理性王国”;主张自由平等,反对大私有制及其压迫;提出“天赋人权说”,反对专制、暴政。在教育上,他主张教育目的在培养自然人;反对封建教育戕害、轻视儿童,要求提高儿童在教育中的地位;主张改革教育内容和方法,顺应儿童的本性,让他们的身心自由发展,反映了资产阶级和广大劳动人民从封建专制主义下解放出来的强烈要求。其主要著作有《社会契约论》《爱弥儿》《忏悔录》等。

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought.

Rousseau's novel émile, or On Education is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship. His sentimental novel Julie, or the New Heloise was of importance to the development of pre-romanticism and romanticism in fiction. Rousseau's autobiographical writings — his Confessions, which initiated the modern autobiography, and his Reveries of a Solitary Walker — exemplified the late 18th-century movement known as the Age of Sensibility, and featured an increased focus on subjectivity and introspection that later characterized modern writing. His Discourse on Inequality and The Social Contract are cornerstones in modern political and social thought.

Rousseau was a successful composer of music, who wrote seven operas as well as music in other forms, and made contributions to music as a theorist. As a composer, his music was a blend of the late Baroque style and the emergent Classical fashion, and he belongs to the same generation of transitional composers as Christoph Willibald Gluck and C.P.E. Bach. One of his more well-known works is the one-act opera Le devin du village, containing the duet "Non, Colette n'est point trompeuse" which was later rearranged as a standalone song by Beethoven.

During the period of the French Revolution, Rousseau was the most popular of the philosophes among members of the Jacobin Club. Rousseau was interred as a national hero in the Panthéon in Paris, in 1794, 16 years after his death.

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