The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind
The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind is a book authored by Gustave Le Bon that was first published in 1895. In the book, Le Bon claims that there are several characteristics of crowd psychology: "impulsiveness, irritability, incapacity to reason, the absence of judgement of the critical spirit, the exaggeration of sentiments, and others...".
Scarcely a century ago the traditional policy of European states and the rivalries of sovereigns were the principal factors that shaped events. The opinion of the masses scarcely counted, and most frequently indeed did not count at all. To-day it is the traditions which used to obtain in politics, and the individual tendencies and rivalries of rulers which do not count; while, on the contrary, the voice of the masses has become preponderant. It is this voice that dictates their conduct to kings, whose endeavour is to take note of its utterances. The destinies of nations are elaborated at present in the heart of the masses, and no longer in the councils of princes.
INTRODUCTION THE ERA OF CROWDS
BOOK I THE MIND OF CROWDS
BOOK II THE OPINIONS AND BELIEFS OF CROWDS
BOOK III THE CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF CROWDS