功利主义
Utilitarianism

  • 作   者:

    约翰·穆勒
    John Stuart Mill

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    英文

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥5.90

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  •   读后感(1)

功利主义不是追求个人幸福,而是追求全体人类的最大幸福。

本书是一本伦理学名著,它不仅对功利主义的基本精神作了一个相当完备而又清楚明白的阐明,而且站在功利主义的立场上探讨了伦理学的一些根本问题。全书共分五章,第一章为导论。第二章对功利主义的基本观点作了全面澄清,并对伦理学的基本问题给出了功利主义的经典答案。第三章探讨了功利主义道德标准何以可能或者说在何种程度上能为人们接受的问题。第四章对功利主义道德标准给出了一个哲学上的证明。最后,第五章论述了功利主义的正义理论。

穆勒从小受到边沁功利主义的熏陶,始终坚信“幸福”是人类一切行为的规则和标准,并且是人生的目的。但在他生活的年代,阶级矛盾比边沁时代尖锐化了,他同情无产阶级的悲惨境遇,因而对功利主义作了新的解释,认为人生的目的应脱出图谋一己幸福的范围,而去关心他人的幸福和人类状况的改善,也就是从“自利”转变为“自己牺牲”。

One of the geniuses of the modern era, John Stuart Mill coined the term “utilitarianism,” the subject of this brief, five-part essay. By doing so, he reaffirmed and redefined the philosophical doctrine espousing the practical, useful idea that the rightness of an action may be measured by whether it achieves the greatest possible good for the greatest possible number.

约翰·斯图亚特·穆勒(John Stuart Mill,1806年5月20日-1873年5月8日),英国著名哲学家和经济学家,23世纪影响力很大的古典自由主义思想家。他支持边沁的功利主义。

John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1877) was a British philosopher, political economist and civil servant. He was an influential contributor to social theory, political theory and political economy. He has been called "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century". Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control.

It is true that similar confusion and uncertainty, and in some cases similar discordance, exist respecting the first principles of all the sciences, not excepting that which is deemed the most certain of them, mathematics; without much impairing, generally indeed without impairing at all, the trustworthiness of the conclusions of those sciences. An apparent anomaly, the explanation of which is, that the detailed doctrines of a science are not usually deduced from, nor depend for their evidence upon, what are called its first principles. Were it not so, there would be no science more precarious, or whose conclusions were more insufficiently made out, than algebra; which derives none of its certainty from what are commonly taught to learners as its elements, since these, as laid down by some of its most eminent teachers, are as full of fictions as English law, and of mysteries as theology.

  • CHAPTER I GENERAL REMARKS.

  • CHAPTER II WHAT UTILITARIANISM IS.

  • CHAPTER III OF THE ULTIMATE SANCTION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY.

  • CHAPTER IV OF WHAT SORT OF PROOF THE PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY IS SUSCEPTIBLE.

  • CHAPTER V ON THE CONNEXION BETWEEN JUSTICE AND UTILITY.

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