清廷十三年:马国贤在华回忆录(京华往事)
Memoirs of Father Ripa,During Thirteen Years’Residence at the Court of Peking in the Service of the Emperor of China

  • 作   者:

    马国贤
    Matteo Ripa

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    英文

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  • 电子书:

    ¥14.90

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西方汉学的“奠基”之作

The following pages are a condensation of the most interesting portions of Father Ripa's‘History of the Chinese College', published at Naples in 1832, in three volumes octavo. For any amusement or instruction that the reader may derive from their perusal, he will be indebted to Sir Woodbine Parish. But for him, Father Ripa's work, like those of several other modern Italian historians, of far greater merit, would never, perhaps, have been known in this country. Sir Woodbine Parish had himself intended to publish it in English, connected with the map of Peking, which he obtained at the Chinese College at Naples. Other more important avocations having prevented him from executing his intention, the task has fallen to the share of the actual translator. The original title has not been retained, because the present abridgment is more intended to give the passages relating to China, than those concerning the institution to which the Italian work is especially devoted.

英译本《清廷十三年》有着重要的文献价值。从宗教观点来看,此前利玛窦将自己在中国的经历撰成《中国札记》,反映的是早期耶稣会士的观点;马国贤的《中国圣会和中国学院创办记事》则是非耶稣会(虔劳会)士有关中国和其他东方国家情况的新近纪录,它提供了康熙晚年和雍正即位之初清廷和京师的诸多情形,这对当时的欧洲读者来说具有极大的神秘性和诱惑力。从史实来看,此前西方人有关康熙年间清廷情形的记载主要有两部,一部是法国耶稣会士白晋(Joachim Bouvet,1656—1730)于1697年撰著的《康熙皇帝的画像》,另一部是法国耶稣会士张诚(Jean Francois Gerbillon,1654—1707)撰写的日记。但它们记述的均为康熙前期的历史;而马国贤的《清廷十三年》则主要记载康熙晚期的历史。因此,马氏的《清廷十三年》具有特殊的文献价值。

The following pages are a condensation of the most interesting portions of Father Ripa's‘History of the Chinese College', published at Naples in 1832, in three volumes octavo. For any amusement or instruction that the reader may derive from their perusal, he will be indebted to Sir Woodbine Parish. But for him, Father Ripa's work, like those of several other modern Italian historians, of far greater merit, would never, perhaps, have been known in this country. Sir Woodbine Parish had himself intended to publish it in English, connected with the map of Peking, which he obtained at the Chinese College at Naples. Other more important avocations having prevented him from executing his intention, the task has fallen to the share of the actual translator. The original title has not been retained, because the present abridgment is more intended to give the passages relating to China, than those concerning the institution to which the Italian work is especially devoted.

马国贤1682年3月29日出生于意大利萨莱诺Salerno教区的埃博利Eboli。1701年加入意大利本土的一个天主教会传教机构——虔劳会。1707年马氏被教宗克莱芒十一世(Clement XI )派遣赴中国传教,途中凡二十一个月,于1710年(康熙四十九年)1月抵达澳门,次年到达北京拜见清帝康熙,随后被任命为宫廷画师。1722年他在北京购置房屋一所,为信传部在京第一所产业。1723年(雍正元年)他带领四名中国青少年教徒(谷文耀、殷若望、黄巴桐、吴露爵)离开北京准备回国,并于1724年1月从广州乘船,踏上了归国的旅程。马国贤神父在北京停留了十三年,跨越康熙、雍正两朝。《清廷十三年》即主要记述作者在清朝宫廷的这一段经历。1725年,马国贤回到意大利。1732年7月,在罗马教皇特许下,他在那不勒斯设立中国学院(College of China),这是西方第一个专门培养中国学生的教学机构。1745年11月马国贤在意大利逝世。

Matteo Ripa (29 March 1682, Eboli – 29 March 1746, Naples) was an Italian priest who was sent as a missionary to China by Propaganda Fide, and between 1711 to 1723 worked as a painter and copper-engraver at the Manchu court of the well-known Kangxi Emperor.

马国贤的地位和份量虽不及马可•波罗与利玛窦,但他在中意乃至中欧文化交流史上所起的作用也不可小视。他担任清宫画师时主持制作的《御制避暑山庄三十六景诗图》铜版画,为我国第一套铜版画作品。该画于1873年制作完成,它在构图、内容、画面的大小以及雕刻技法上仿制了原木刻本,并结合西方绘画及铜版雕刻技法,将中国传统绘画技法融入其中。这套铜版画雕镌精细、线条谨密、层次感强,是中西绘画、雕刻、印刷的铜版画的早期代表作。他留下的遗作《中国圣会和中国学院创办记事》,记叙了他在中国的见闻和回国后创办中国学院的经历,是西方汉学的重要经典。他创办的中国学院既是意大利培养汉学人才的起源,也是今天意大利汉学的摇篮。仅此三大功绩,就足以奠定马国贤在中欧文化交流史上的重要地位。

In the year 1700, as I was strolling one day about the streets of Naples in search of amusement, I came to the open space before the Viceregal Palace just at the moment when a Franciscan friar, mounted on a bench, began to address the people. I was only eighteen; but though so young, I was then leading a life which I could scarcely describe without shocking the reader. Amid all my vices, however it was fortunate for me that I always listened with pleasure to religious discourses, not indeed with a view to derive any profit or instruction from them, but merely out of curiosity. The preacher took for his text these words of the prophet Amos, “For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; ”and he proved that there were a certain numberof sins which God would forgive, but that beyond that number there is no salvation for any one. From the proofs he passed to the morality of the doctrine, and here he brought in the beautiful illustration of the scales, which, when equally balanced, the smallest addition will weigh down. “Thus, ”said the worthy father, “if when our sins are equal to our counterpoise we commit one more offence, the beam on which our lot is weighed will turn and fix our eternal perdition; and as we do not know when our scales are balanced, if we transgress at the risk of such a punishment, we deserve condemnation. ”

  • 总 序

  • 前 言

  • MEMOIRS OF FATHER RIPA

  • PREFACE

  • CHAPTER I

  • CHAPTER II

  • CHAPRER III

  • CHAPTER IV

  • CHAPTER V

  • CHAPTER VI

  • CHAPTER VII

  • CHAPTER VIII

  • CHAPTER IX

  • CHAPTER X

  • CHAPTER XI

  • CHAPTER XII

  • CHAPTER XIV

  • CHAPTER XV

  • CHAPTER XVI

  • CHAPTER XVII

  • CHAPTER XVIII

  • CHAPTER XIX

  • CHAPTER XX

  • CHAPTER XXI

  • CHAPTER XXII

  • CHAPTER XXIII

  • CHAPTER XXIV

  • CHAPTER XXV

  • CHAPTER XXVI

  • CHAPTER XXVII

  • CHAPTER XXVIII

  • CONCLUSION

  • APPENDIX

  • 版权页

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