论人类理解力的提高
On the Improvement of the Understanding

  • 作   者:

    斯宾诺莎
    Benedict de Spinoza

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    英文

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥4.90

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大地的融化,海水的暴涨,星辰的坠落,全在于你的理解力。

Tractatus de Intellectus Emendatione (1677) or On The Improvement Of The Understanding, is a seventeenth-century unfinished work of philosophy by the 17th century philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Tractatus was first published in 1677, the year of Spinoza's death, by some of his closest friends, along with other works including the Ethica and the Tractatus Politicus.[1] The Tractatus is an attempt to formulate a philosophical method that would allow the mind to form the clear and distinct ideas that are necessary for its perfection. It contains, in addition, reflection upon the various kinds of knowledge, an extended treatment of definition, and a lengthy analysis of the nature and causes of doubt. The characteristic of the work is the discussion of different form of perception at Chapter IV and illustration of the best one in relation with the experience and intelligence at the next Chapter. He also addresses the issues of memory and forgetting.

此书是17世纪的哲学家斯宾诺莎的未完之作,是在他去世后由他亲密的朋友集结了其他作品,如《道德》,一起出版的。此书意在形成一种哲学的方法,允许思维形成清晰而不同的想法,对于完美是必要的。此外,还包含了凡茜各种各样的知识、定义、对本质的分析和怀疑的起因。此作品的特色在于讨论了不同形式的知觉,阐述了经历和智力的关系,还解决了记忆与遗忘的问题。

On The Improvement Of The Understanding, is a seventeenth-century unfinished work of philosophy by the 17th century philosopher Baruch Spinoza.It was first published in 1677, the year of Spinoza's death, by some of his closest friends, along with other works including the Ethica and the Tractatus Politicus.The Tractatus is an attempt to formulate a philosophical method that would allow the mind to form the clear and distinct ideas that are necessary for its perfection. It contains, in addition, reflection upon the various kinds of knowledge, an extended treatment of definition, and a lengthy analysis of the nature and causes of doubt. The characteristic of the work is the discussion of different form of perception at Chapter IV and illustration of the best one in relation with the experience and intelligence at the next Chapter. He also addresses the issues of memory and forgetting.

巴鲁赫·德·斯宾诺莎(Baruch de Spinoza,公元1632年11月24日-公元1677年2月21日),犹太裔荷兰籍哲学家。近代西方哲学公认的三大理性主义者之一,与笛卡尔和莱布尼茨齐名。斯宾诺莎出生阿姆斯特丹的一个从西班牙逃往荷兰的犹太家庭。年轻时进入培养拉比的宗教学校,在艰难的生活条件下,他仍然坚持哲学和科学的研究,他的思想通过通信方式传播到欧洲各地,赢得人们的尊重。1677年不幸死于肺痨,享年45岁。他的主要著作有《笛卡尔哲学原理》、《神学政治论》、《伦理学》、《知性改进论》等。

Baruch Spinoza (/bəˈruːk spɪˈnoʊzə/;born Benedito de Espinosa; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi Portuguese origin.The breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was not fully realized until many years after his death. By laying the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism,including modern conceptions of the self and, arguably, the universe, he came to be considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy. His magnum opus, the posthumous Ethics, in which he opposed Descartes' mind–body dualism, has earned him recognition as one of Western philosophy's most important thinkers. In the Ethics, "Spinoza wrote the last indisputable Latin masterpiece, and one in which the refined conceptions of medieval philosophy are finally turned against themselves and destroyed entirely."Hegel said, "You are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all." His philosophical accomplishments and moral character prompted 20th-century philosopher Gilles Deleuze to name him "the 'prince' of philosophers".

After experience had taught me that all the usual surroundings of social life are vain and futile; seeing that none of the objects of my fears contained in themselves anything either good or bad, except in so far as the mind is affected by them, I finally resolved to inquire whether there might be some real good having power to communicate itself, which would affect the mind singly, to the exclusion of all else: whether, in fact, there might be anything of which the discovery and attainment would enable me to enjoy continuous, supreme, and unending happiness.

  • Notice to the Reader

  • Introduction

  • First Part of Method

  • Second Part of Method

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