利维坦
Leviathan

  • 作   者:

    托马斯·霍布斯(英)
    Thomas Hobbes

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    英文

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥13.90

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《利维坦》全书分为四部分。第一部分开宗明义宣布了作者的彻底唯物主义自然观和一般的哲学观点,声称宇宙是由物质的微粒构成,物体是独立的客观存在,物质永恒存在,既非人所创造,也非人所能消灭,一切物质都于运动状态中。第二部分是全书的主腐朽 ,主要描述自然状态中人们不幸的生活中都享有“生而平等”的自然权利,又都有渴望和平和安定生活的共同要求,于是出于人的理性,人们相互间同意订立契约,放弃各人的自然权利,把它托付给某一个人或一个由多人组成的集体,这个人或集体能把大家的意志化为一个意志,能把大家的人格统一为一个人格;大家则服从他的意地志,服从他的判断。第三部分《论基督教国家》旨在否认自成一统的教会,抨击教皇掌有超越世俗政权的大权。第四部分《论黑暗的王国》,其主要矛头是针对罗马教会,大量揭发了罗马教会的腐败黑暗、剥削领婪的种种丑行劣迹,从而神的圣洁尊崇,教会的威严神秘,已经在霍布斯的笔下黯然失色。

The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince.

《利维坦》是英国机械唯物主义哲学家托马斯·霍布斯的代表著作。书中强调指出,统治者的权力是不受契约限制的,国家权力不可分割,不可转让。这种君主专制主义学说具有反民主的性质,但在当时的历史条件下,他用人的眼光来观察国家问题,具有反封建的意义。

Leviathan established the social contract theory that has served as the foundation for most later Western political philosophy.

霍布斯是英国政治学家、哲学家。英国理性主义传统的奠基人,是近代第一个在自然法基础上系统发展了国家契约学说的资产阶级启蒙思想家。他的《利维坦》(Leviathan)是一部体系完备、内容翔实、论证严密的学术著作,对西方自由主义思想产生过广泛和深远的影响,本书被誉为可与亚里士多德的《政治学》相媲美。

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

Concerning the thoughts of man, I will consider them first singly, and afterwards in train or dependence upon one another. Singly, they are every one a representation or appearance of some quality, or other accident of a body without us, which is commonly called an object. Which object worketh on the eyes, ears, and other parts of man's body, and by diversity of working produceth diversity of appearances.

  • Introduction

  • The First Part: Of Man

  • The Second Part: Of Commonwealth

  • The Third Part: Of a Christian Commonwealth

  • The Fourth Part: Of the Kingdom of Darkness

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