伦理学
The Ethics

  • 作   者:

    巴鲁赫·德·斯宾诺莎
    Benedict de Spinoza

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    英文

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥9.90

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该书用几何学的方法写成,认为只有凭理性的能力获得的知识才是最可靠的知识,人有天赋的知识能力,世界是可以认识的。《伦理学》从本体论、认识论开始,最后得出《伦理学》的最高概念自由,为人的幸福指明了道路。可以说,自由是斯宾诺莎哲学的核心和最终归宿。

《伦理学》一书是斯宾诺莎的主要著作,他的哲学思想基本上都表述在这本书中。他写这部著作花费了十多年的功夫,从1662年写起,到1675年才完成。斯宾诺莎的世界观是在尼德兰资本主义生产关系急剧发展的时期形成的,反映了新兴资产阶级的利益和要求,他的哲学思想应该看作是对资产阶级自由的论证。

In the "Ethics",Spinoza discusses his beliefs about what he considers to be the three kinds of knowledge that come with perceptions. The first kind of knowledge he writes about is the knowledge of experiences. More precisely, this first type of knowledge can be known as the knowledge of things that could be "mutilated, confused, and without order."Spinoza’s second knowledge involves reasoning plus emotions.Spinoza defines the third and final knowledge as the knowledge of God, which requires rationality and reason of the mind. In more detail, Spinoza uses this type of knowledge to join together the essence of God with the individual essence.

巴鲁赫·德·斯宾诺莎(Baruch de Spinoza,公元1632年11月24日-公元1677年2月21日),犹太裔荷兰籍哲学家。近代西方哲学公认的三大理性主义者之一,与笛卡尔和莱布尼茨齐名。斯宾诺莎出生阿姆斯特丹的一个从西班牙逃往荷兰的犹太家庭。年轻时进入培养拉比的宗教学校,在艰难的生活条件下,他仍然坚持哲学和科学的研究,他的思想通过通信方式传播到欧洲各地,赢得人们的尊重。1677年不幸死于肺痨,享年45岁。他的主要著作有《笛卡尔哲学原理》、《神学政治论》、《伦理学》、《知性改进论》等。

Baruch Spinoza (24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.By laying the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism,including modern conceptions of the self and the universe,he came to be considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy.Along with René Descartes, Spinoza was a leading philosophical figure of the Dutch Golden Age.

I. By that which is self-caused, I mean that of which the essence involves existence, or that of which the nature is only conceivable as existent.II. A thing is called finite after its kind, when it can be limited by another thing of the same nature; for instance, a body is called finite because we always conceive another greater body. So, also, a thought is limited by another thought, but a body is not limited by thought, nor a thought by body.

  • PART I. CONCERNING GOD

  • PART II. ON THE NATURE AND ORIGIN OF THE MIND

  • PART III. ON THE ORIGIN AND NATURE OF THE EMOTIONS

  • PART IV. OF HUMAN BONDAGE, OR THE STRENGTH OF THE EMOTIONS

  • PART V. OF THE POWER OF THE UNDERSTANDING, OR OF HUMAN FREEDOM

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