The First Treatise of Government

  • 作   者:

    John Locke

  • 出版社:

    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:


  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:


  • 0(0人评过)
  •   评论(0)
  •   读后感(0)


《政府论》是洛克最重要的政治论文。《政府论》(上)是对罗伯特·费尼默爵士(Robert Filmer)的《先祖论即论国王之自然权》的反驳。洛克极力并有效地驳斥了费尼默的君权神授的主张。洛克主张政府的权威只能建立在被统治者拥有的基础之上,并且支持社会契约论。不过他也强调社会契约是可以废除的。

Two Treatises of Government, a work of political philosophy by John Locke, attacks patriarchalism in the form of sentence-by-sentence refutation of Robert Filmer's Patriarcha, and outlines Locke's ideas for a more civilized society based on natural rights and contract theory. From this, he goes on to explain the hypothetical rise of property and civilization, in the process explaining that the only legitimate governments are those that have the consent of the people. Therefore, any government that rules without the consent of the people can, in theory, be overthrown.


John Locke FRS (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704), was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.


1.Slavery is so vile and miserable an estate of man, and so directly opposite to the generous temper and courage of our nation, that it is hardly to be conceived that an Englishman, much less a gentleman, should plead for it. And truly I should have taken Sir Robert Filmer's Patriarcha, as any other treatise, which would persuade all men that they are slaves, and ought to be so, for such another exercise of wit as was his who write the encomium of Nero; rather than for a serious discourse meant in earnest, had not the gravity of the title and epistle, the picture in the front of the book, and the applause that followed it, required me to believe that the author and publisher were both in earnest. I therefore took it into my hands with all the expectation, and read it through with all the attention due to a treatise that made such a noise at its coming abroad, and cannot but confess myself mightily surprised that in a book, which was to provide chains for all mankind, I should find nothing but a rope of sand, useful perhaps to such whose skill and business it is to raise a dust, and would blind the people, the better to mislead them; but in truth not of any force to draw those into bondage, who have their eyes open, and so much sense about them, as to consider that chains are but an ill wearing, how much care soever hath been taken to file and polish them.

  • 第一章 导读

  • 第二章 论父权和王权

  • 第三章 论亚当基于神造而享有主权

  • 第四章 论亚当基于神赐而享有主权

  • 第五章 论亚当因夏娃的从属而享有主权

  • 第六章 论亚当因父亲身份而享有主权

  • 第七章 论“父权”和“财产权”作为统治权的共同来源

  • 第八章 论亚当最高君权的转移

  • 第九章 论从亚当继承下来的君主制

  • 第十章 论亚当君权的继承者

  • 第十一章 继承者是谁?

  • Chapter I The First Treatise of Government

  • Chapter II Of Paternal and Regal Power

  • Chapter III Of Adam's Title to Sovereignty, by Creation

  • Chapter IV Of Adam's Title to Sovereignty, by Donation

  • Chapter V Of Adam's Title to Sovereignty, by the Subjection of Eve

  • Chapter VI Of Adam's Title to Sovereignty, by Fatherhood

  • Chapter VII Of Fatherhood and Property Considered Together as Fountains of Sovereignty

  • Chapter VIII Of the Conveyance of Adam's Sovereigns Monarchical Power

  • Chapter IX Of Monarchy by Inheritance from Adam

  • Chapter X Of the Heir to Adam's Monarchical Power

  • Chapter XI Who Heir?