政府论(下)
The Second Treatise of Government

  • 作   者:

    约翰·洛克
    John Locke

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    双语

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥11.90

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近代资产阶级革命的《圣经》,媲美亚里士多德的《政治学》。

《政府论》是洛克最重要的政治论文。在《政府论》(下)中洛克则试图替光荣革命辩护(但根据拉斯莱特的考证,政府论发表之时,光荣革命尚未发生,因此这部著作是在呼唤一场革命而不是为已经发生的革命辩护),提出了一套正当政府的理论,并且主张当政府违反这个理论时,人们就有权推翻其政权。洛克还巧妙的暗示读者当时英国的詹姆斯二世已经违反了这个理论。

The Second Treatise outlines a theory of civil society. John Locke begins by describing the state of nature, a picture much more stable than Thomas Hobbes' state of "war of every man against every man," and argues that all men are created equal in the state of nature by God. From this, he goes on to explain the hypothetical rise of property and civilization, in the process explaining that the only legitimate governments are those that have the consent of the people. Therefore, any government that rules without the consent of the people can, in theory, be overthrown.

约翰•洛克(John Locke,1632年8月29日-1704年10月28日)是英国的哲学家。在知识论上,洛克与乔治•贝克莱、大卫•休谟三人被列为英国经验主义(British Empiricism)的代表人物,但他也在社会契约理论上做出重要贡献。洛克的思想对于后代政治哲学的发展产生巨大影响,并且被广泛视为是启蒙时代最具影响力的思想家和自由主义者。他的著作也大为影响了伏尔泰和卢梭,以及许多苏格兰启蒙运动的思想家和美国开国元勋。他的理论被反映在美国的《独立宣言》上。

John Locke FRS was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory.

上篇已经表明:

第一,亚当并不像有些人所说的那样,依据父亲身份的自然权利或上帝的明确赐予,而享有对其子女的那种权力或对世界的统治权。

第二,即使他享有这种权力,他的继承人也无权享之。

第三,即使他的继承人享有这种权力,但由于既不存在自然法也不存在上帝的明文律法来确定在可能出现的任何情况下谁是合法继承人,所以就无法确定继承权,也就无法确定统治权归属何人。

It having been shown in the foregoing discourse:

Firstly, that Adam had not, either by natural right of fatherhood or by positive donation from God, any such authority over his children, nor dominion over the world, as is pretended.

Secondly, that if he had, his heirs yet had no right to it.

Thirdly, that if his heirs had, there being no law of Nature nor positive law of God that determines which is the right heir in all cases that may arise, the right of succession, and consequently of bearing rule, could not have been certainly determined.

  • 第一章 论政治权力

  • 第二章 论自然状态

  • 第三章 论战争状态

  • 第四章 论奴役

  • 第五章 论财产

  • 第六章 论父权

  • 第七章 论政治社会或公民社会

  • 第八章 论政治社会的发轫

  • 第九章 论政治社会和政府的目的

  • 第十章 论国家的形式

  • 第十一章 论立法权的范围

  • 第十二章 论国家的立法权、执行权和对外权

  • 第十三章 论国家权力的统属

  • 第十四章 论特权

  • 第十五章 综论父权、政治权力和专制权力

  • 第十六章 论征服

  • 第十七章 论篡夺

  • 第十八章 论暴政

  • 第十九章 论政府的解体

  • Chapter I Of Political Power

  • Chapter II Of the State of Nature

  • Chapter III Of the State of War

  • Chapter IV Of Slavery

  • Chapter V Of Property

  • Chapter VI Of Paternal Power

  • Chapter VII Of Political or Civil Society

  • Chapter VIII Of the Beginning of Political Societies

  • Chapter IX Of the Ends of Political Society and Government

  • Chapter X Of the Forms of a Commonwealth

  • Chapter XI Of the Extent of the Legislative Power

  • Chapter XII Of the Legislative, Executive, and Federative Power of the Commonwealth

  • Chapter XIII Of the Subordination of the Powers of the Commonwealth

  • Chapter XIV Of Prerogative

  • Chapter XV Of Paternal, Political and Despotical Power, Considered Together

  • Chapter XVI Of Conquest

  • Chapter XVII Of Usurpation

  • Chapter XVIII Of Tyranny

  • Chapter XIX Of the Dissolution of Government

    暂时还没有读后感,等待第一篇…