自然价值
Natural Value

  • 作   者:

    弗里德里克·维塞尔
    Friedrich Wieser

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    双语

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥14.90

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《自然价值》作者弗里德里克·维塞尔是奥地利学派的主要人物之一。在书中他体统阐述了“边际效用价值论”。 维塞尔的边际效用价值论企图用主观心理分析代替客观经济规律,使资产阶级经济学进一步庸俗化。他的边际原理,包括他的边际效用论和归属论,不仅系统化了奥地利学派的理论结构,也为后来形形色色的资产阶级经济学流派所接受,构成资产阶级微观经济学的理论基础。“边际革命”是资产阶级经济学发展的一个重要里程碑。

《自然价值》包含了弗雷德里克·威泽的边际效用(册),他抽象化了购买力使得价格偏离“自然价值”差异(第二卷),他的边际效用理论的应用以生产资料通过“归责”的估值(书III和IV),他的成本解释为间接效用,或财富能力的牺牲,机会成本即后来被称为“维塞尔定律”(第五卷)的定理,他企图把价值理论扩展到税收领域(第六卷)。

Wieser is renowned for two main works, Natural Value, which carefully details the alternative-cost doctrine and the theory of imputation, and his Social Economics (1914). In Natural Value von Wieser introduced the theory of imputation and the alternative-cost doctrine, and is credited with the concepts that became known as marginal utility. The Opportunity Cost Theory is considered a valuable contribution from Weiser. His economic distinction between public goods and private goods is still used by economists as one of the main elements of the concept of marginal utility.

维塞尔出生于维也纳一个高级军官家庭,早年在维也纳大学学习法律,毕业后到奥地利政府机关供职达10年。曾去德国,在历史学派的W.罗雪尔、B.希尔德布兰德(1812~1878)、K.G.A.克尼斯(1821~1898)等指导下研修经济学。 1884年到布拉格大学任教,1889年成为该校经济学教授。1903年接替岳父C.门格尔任维也纳大学经济学教授。1917年后,任奥匈帝国上议院终身议员,并在奥匈帝国最后两届内阁中任商务大臣。

Friedrich Freiherr von Wieser was an early (so-called "first generation") economist of the Austrian School of economics. Born in Vienna, the son of Privy Councillor Leopold von Wieser, a high official in the war ministry, he first trained in sociology and law. In 1872, the year he took his degree, he encountered Austrian-school founder Carl Menger's Grundsätze and switched his interest to economic theory. Wieser held posts at the universities of Vienna and Prague until succeeding Menger in Vienna in 1903, where, with brother-in-law Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, he shaped the next generation of Austrian economists including Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich Hayek and Joseph Schumpeter in the late 1890s and early 20th century. He was the Austrian Minister of Commerce from August 30, 1917 to November 11, 1918.

事物的价值来自哪里?如果我们向任何聪明且训练有素的商人提出这个问题,他会同早期的理论家们一样信心十足地回答:“来自它们的效用。”这是因为他不了解理论家们为了得到价值的一个解释而付出的百般努力,且他的思想没有因为已用于日常商务的学术理论的各种语言形式而存有成见,因而仅凭自己的个人经验进行判断。如果他得知数个理由证明这一答案不可靠,而且,许多事实(其中有些在一定程度上广为人知,甚至他自己也很熟悉)几乎绝对肯定地证明效用不可能是价值之源,他会十分惊讶。这些事实我们可以表述如下。

Whence do things get their value? If we put the question to any intelligent and trained man of business, who had no knowledge of the various attempts of theorists towards an explanation of value, whose mind was unbiassed by the forms of speech which echo learned theories and have passed into ordinary business use, and who was, therefore, capable of judging only through the medium of his own personal experience, he would undoubtedly answer, as the first theorists did—"from their utility". He would be very much surprised to learn that several considerations made the truth of this answer improbable, and that many facts—some of them to a certain extent generally known and familiar even to himself—seemed to prove, with almost absolute certainty, that utility could not be the source of value. These facts we may state as follows.

  • 第一卷 价值的基本理论
  • 第二卷 交换价值和自然价值
  • 第三卷 生产收益的自然归属
  • 第四卷 土地、资本、以及劳动的自然价值
  • 第五卷 产品的自然成本价值
  • 第六卷 国家经济中的价值
  • Book I The Elementary Theory of Value
  • Book 2 Exchange Value and Natural Value
  • Book 3 The Natural Imputation of the Return from Production
  • Book 4 The Natural Value of Land, Capital, and Labour
  • Book 5 The Natural Cost Value of Products
  • Book 6 Value in the Economy of the State
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