心理学导论
Introduction to Psychology

  • 作   者:

    保尔·布鲁姆
    Paul Bloom

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    双语

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥9.90

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感知、爱、欲望、饥饿、艺术、小说以及梦……你想知道的一切!

It is all about perception, love, desire, hunger, art, dream...everything you want to know!

本门课程从科学的角度探讨了感知、爱、欲望、饥饿、艺术等与日常生活息息相关的话题,分析了儿童在这些方面的心理是如何成长的,它们在人与人之间又是如何不同的,又是怎么因为疾病和损伤而被影响,让读者对这些领域有科学而系统的认识,对人的心理和身体之间的关系有更深入的了解。

This course explores topics such as perception, communication, learning, memory, decision-making, religion, persuasion, love, lust, hunger, art, fiction, and dreams. We will look at how these aspects of the mind develop in children, how they differ across people, how they are wired-up in the brain, and how they break down due to illness and injury.

保尔·布鲁姆是耶鲁大学心理学教授。他出生在加拿大的蒙特利尔,本科曾就读于麦吉尔大学,曾在麻省理工大学攻读博士学位。保尔·布鲁姆在《自然与科学》等很多科学期刊上都发表过文章,很多流行媒体也刊登过他的著述,比如:《纽约时报》、《大西洋月刊》。他是《行为与大脑科学》一书的作者之一,他自己也出版了两本书:《孩子是如何学会文字的意义》以及《笛卡尔的婴儿:用儿童发展科学解释什么使我们成为人类》。他的研究探讨了孩子对艺术、宗教及道德的理解。

Paul Bloom is a professor of Psychology at Yale University. He was born in Montreal, Canada, was an undergraduate at McGill University, and did his doctoral work at MIT. He has published in many scientific journals such as Nature and Science, and in popular outlets such as The New York Times and The Atlantic Monthly. He is the co-editor of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, and the author of two books: How Children Learn the Meanings of Words and Descartes' Baby: How the Science of Child Development Explains What Makes Us Human. His research explores children's understanding of art, religion, and morality.

第5讲 婴儿是如何思考的:思维的发展历程

我们这些天所讲的各种方法、理论、思想,其形成在一定程度上都受到了皮亚杰的影响。本课通过皮亚杰的理论,来讲讲认知发展。皮亚杰认为:儿童是能主动思考的,试图去理解这个世界。他把儿童称为小科学家。我想顺便提一下皮亚杰为何会去研究儿童,他有着一个宏伟远大的目标,研究的初衷并不是出于对儿童感兴趣,而是出于对认识产生的一般规律的兴趣。皮亚杰主张发生认识论,即认识的起源。但是由于他深信个体儿童的发展能够表现出认识发展的一般规律,所以才选择去研究个体儿童的发展。

有一个短语听上去很自大,不知你们之前是否有所耳闻,这是一个非常了不起的短语,叫做“胚胎重演律”,意思是:个体的发展模拟或重演了种族的发展。现在看来,这个观点完全错误。但这却是个美妙的词语,皮亚杰对此深信不疑。他常说:“只要能够理解儿童如何发展,就能够理解认识发展的一般规律”。

皮亚杰将儿童视为科学家,认为儿童能够形成关于世界的一系列看法、图示、或是小型理论。而这一过程可以通过两种机制实现——同化和顺应。同化是指反应范围的扩大。例如一个习惯吸吮乳房的婴儿可能会去吸吮奶瓶或是拨浪鼓,这就是在改变反应范围了。顺应是指改变你的行为方式。例如婴儿会因为吸吮物体的不同而改变嘴型。我刚才是从生理的角度来谈论这些过程的,从心理上来讲,人用特定的方式看待这个世界。人们可以将新信息纳入已有的认知结构中,也就是同化。也可以改变已有的认知结构以适应新的环境和信息,这便是顺应。

Lecture 5 What Is It Like to Be a Baby: The Development of Thought

Most of what we do these days – our methods, our theories, our ideas – are shaped, to some extent, by Piaget's influence. And so, what I want to do is begin this class that's going to talk about cognitive development by talking about his ideas. His idea was that children are active thinkers; they're trying to figure out the world. He often described them as little scientists. And incidentally, to know where he's coming from on this, he had a very dramatic and ambitious goal. He didn't start off because he was interested in children. He started off because he was interested in the emergence of knowledge in general. It was a discipline he described as genetic epistemology – the origins of knowledge. But he studied development of the individual child because he was convinced that this development will tell him about the development of knowledge more generally.

There's a very snooty phrase that--I don't know if you ever heard it before. It's a great phrase. It's "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny". And what that means is that development of an individual mimics or repeats development of the species. Now, it's entirely not true. But it's a beautiful phrase and Piaget was committed to this. He was very interested in saying, "Look. We'll figure how a kid develops and that will tell us about the development of knowledge more generally."

课程很好,教授讲的很具体也很清晰。

一直对心理学感兴趣,终于找到这门有关心理学的课程啦,要好好学习研究一下!

从孩子的角度看待一些问题,和从成人的角度看待这些问题真的有很大的不同!

同一个人在孩童时期和成人时期思想是不同的,不同的人的思想也是不同的,人是复杂的,很大程度上是因为我们的思想是复杂的。

这个教授讲的课真的是好幽默,还以为学心理学会枯燥呢,没想到导论课就被他讲话的风格吸引了。这种学校还真是尽心尽责,甚至连大学的校长都要在情人节被请来讲关于爱情的传说。

  • 第1讲 课程介绍

  • 第2讲 基础:这是你的大脑

  • 第3讲 基础:弗洛伊德

  • 第4讲 基础:斯金纳

  • 第5讲 婴儿是如何思考的:思维的发展历程

  • 第6讲 我们如何交流?思想,语言和手语

  • 第7讲 当前意识;过去意识;语言;愿景与记忆

  • 第8讲 意识的呈现:意识到过去、视觉记忆

  • 第9讲 进化、情感、和理性;爱

  • 第10讲 演化、情感、理性之进化的合理性

  • 第11讲 演化、情感、理性之情感第一部分

  • 第12讲 演化、情感、理性之情感,第二部分

  • 第13讲 人们为什么会有差异?

  • 第14讲 什么激发我们:性

  • 第15讲 一个人在这个世界上的人;道德

  • 第16讲 一个人在这个世界上的人;自我和其它 第一部分

  • 第17讲 一个人在这个世界上的人;自我和其它 第二部分

  • 第18讲 当事情不顺的时候会发生什么事情:精神病 第一部分

  • 第19讲 当事情不顺的时候会发生什么事情:精神病 第二部分

  • 第20讲 最好的生活;幸福

  • Lecture 1 Introduction

  • Lecture 2 Foundations: This Is Your Brain

  • Lecture 3 Foundations: Freud

  • Lecture 4 Foundations: Skinner

  • Lecture 5 What Is It Like to Be a Baby: The Development of Thought

  • Lecture 6 How Do We Communicate?: Language in the Brain, Mouth and the Hands

  • Lecture 7 Conscious of the Present; Conscious of the Past: Language (cont.); Vision and Memory

  • Lecture 8 Conscious of the Present; Conscious of the Past: Vision and Memory (cont.)

  • Lecture 9 Evolution, Emotion, and Reason: Love (Guest Lecture by Professor Peter Salovey)

  • Lecture 10 Evolution, Emotion, and Reason: Evolution and Rationality

  • Lecture 11 Evolution, Emotion, and Reason: Emotions, Part I

  • Lecture 12 Evolution, Emotion, and Reason: Emotions, Part II

  • Lecture 13 Why Are People Different?: Differences

  • Lecture 14 What Motivates Us: Sex

  • Lecture 15 A Person in the World of People: Morality

  • Lecture 16 A Person in the World of People: Self and Other, Part I

  • Lecture 17 A Person in the World of People: Self and Other, Part II; Some Mysteries: Sleep, Dreams, and Laughter

  • Lecture 18 What Happens When Things Go Wrong: Mental Illness, Part I (Guest Lecture by Professor Susan Nolen-Hoeksema)

  • Lecture 19 What Happens When Things Go Wrong: Mental Illness, Part II

  • Lecture 20 The Good Life: Happiness

    暂时还没有读后感,等待第一篇…